Rhombus of K Db8 DS

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Adv 1: Automation Nation[edit]

The U.S. labor market is at a point of transition—Automation driven by advances in robotics, artificial intelligence and computing will displace 8.9 million jobs by 2025[edit]

Speights 6/6 ~~[Reporter for Business Insider ~| "The robots are already here — and your job might be at risk" Business Insider 6/6/17 ~| http://www.businessinsider.com/is-your-jobs-safe-from-the-rise-of-robots-2017-6 ~~] The World Economic Forum (WEF) projects a loss of 7.1 million AND matter of time before robots can perform nearly every job that humans have.

Now is critical to update the U.S. workforce for the automated age— the future of U.S. employment relies on developing a skilled workforce that can advance and integrate with digital technology[edit]

The Economist 2016 ~~[ "Automation and Anxiety: Will Smarter Machines Cause Mass Unemployment," The Economist, Special Report on Artificial Intelligence, 6/25/16 ~| http://www.economist.com/news/special-report/21700758-will-smarter-machines-cause-mass-unemployment-automation-and-anxiety~~] A computer that dispenses expert radiology advice is just one example of how jobs currently AND Mr Mokyr, far more labour is being replaced by cheap workers overseas.

Absent a transition mass unemployment leads to economic collapse[edit]

    • Ford 11** (Martin Ford, futurist and the author of the New York Times bestselling "Rise of the Robots: Technology and the Threat of a Jobless Future" (winner of the 2015 Financial Times/McKinsey Business Book of the Year Award and translated into more than 20 languages) and "The Lights in the Tunnel: Automation, Accelerating Technology and the Economy of the Future," as well as the founder of a Silicon Valley-based software development firm. He has over 25 years experience in the fields of computer design and software development. He holds a computer engineering degree from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor and an MBA degree from the University of California, Los Angeles. The Lights in The Tunnel: Automation, Accelerating Technology And The Economy Of The Future, 2011, p. 5-6)

The reality is that the free market economy, as we understand it today, AND people start to discuss these issues, even the economists will take notice.

Economic decline leads to nuclear war[edit]

Stein **Tønnesson 15**, Research Professor, Peace Research Institute Oslo; Leader of East Asia Peace program, Uppsala University, 2015, "Deterrence, interdependence and Sino–US peace," International Area Studies Review, Vol. 18, No. 3, p. 297-311 Several recent works on China and Sino–US relations have made substantial contributions to AND each other, with a view to obliging Washington or Beijing to intervene.

Computer Science and digital literacy create the infrastructure for a high-skilled, AI enabled economy[edit]

NSTC 2016 ~~[ National Science and Technology Council, the principal means by which the Executive Branch coordinates science and technology policy across research and development (R&D) enterprises ~| "PREPARING FOR THE FUTURE OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE" Report by the NSTC to the President, 10/12/2016 ~| https://www.eenews.net/assets/2016/10/12/document_gw_03.pdf ~~] An AI-enabled world demands a data-literate citizenry that is able to AND preparing a future workforce for the needs of an AI-driven economy.

Adv 2: Advanced Manufacturing[edit]

Advanced Manufacturing is facing a hiring crunch—a lack of skilled workers prevents future growth[edit]

Annunziata et al. 2016 ~~[Marco, Chief Economist for GE Ventures, John Paul Soltesz, Market Strategy Leader at GE; Marni Rutkofsky, Strategy and Marketing Leader at GE Ventures; Karen Kerr, PhD, Senior Managing Director at GE Ventures ~| "The Workforce of the Future: Advanced Manufacturing's Impact on the Global Economy," Report by GE Ventures Investment firm ~| https://www.gita.org.in/Attachments/Reports/AM_FINAL.pdf ~~] AM = Advanced Manufacturing But AM industries have seen a stronger recovery than traditional manufacturers. While 17% AND the demand for STEM workers and the supply of them in the market.

Specifically, the aff trains students in data analytics, modeling, and computer skills key to innovation in the industry[edit]

Brandt 2016 ~~[Linda, Professor and Chair of the Department of Acquisition at the Industrial College of the Armed Forces (ICAF), National Defense University ~| "Industry Report: Advanced Manufacturing," Report for the Eisenhower School for National Security and Resource Strategy ~| http://es.ndu.edu/Portals/75/Documents/industry-study/reports/2016/es-is-report-advanced-manufacturing-2016.pdf ~~] Eighty-four percent of advanced manufacturing executives believe there is a "talent shortage AND to ensure workers are prepared for the increasing technology associated with advanced manufacturing.

Advanced Manufacturing enables economies of scale ensuring military and economic competitiveness[edit]

Brandt 2016 ~~[Linda, Professor and Chair of the Department of Acquisition at the Industrial College of the Armed Forces (ICAF), National Defense University ~| "Industry Report: Advanced Manufacturing," Report for the Eisenhower School for National Security and Resource Strategy ~| http://es.ndu.edu/Portals/75/Documents/industry-study/reports/2016/es-is-report-advanced-manufacturing-2016.pdf ~~] Advanced manufacturing not only maintains positive implications for society, but also strengthens national security AND S. economy in general and often leads potential buyers to another country.

US Primacy prevents Great Power Wars – Anything else escalates and goes nuclear[edit]

    • Ikenberry, 14** – ~~[Gilford John Ikenberry is a theorist of international relations and United States foreign policy, and a professor of Politics and International Affairs in the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University, Senior Fellow at the Brookings Institution, May/June 2014, The Illusion of Geopolitics The Enduring Power of the Liberal Order, Foreign Affairs, https://www.foreignaffairs.org/articles/china/2014-04-17/illusion-geopolitics~~]

Mead also mischaracterizes the thrust of U.S. foreign policy. Since the AND the next great wave of modernization. They are unlikely to do that.

The aff is key to pivot towards advanced manufacturing[edit]

Reynolds 2/13 ~~[Elisabeth B., executive director of the MIT Industrial Performance Center and a lecturer at MIT's Department of Urban Studies and Planning ~| "The New Face of Manufacturing Jobs" The Institute for Work & Employment Research ~| http://iwer.mit.edu/posts/new-face-manufacturing-jobs/ ~~] The relatively strong job and wage growth in the country belies the reality that quality AND . Massachusetts universities are partners or leaders in nine of the 14 institutes.

Adv 3: Cybersecurity[edit]

Despite an executive order for assessment—Trump has yet to address the widening cybersecurity workforce gap[edit]

Bate 5/17 ~~[Laura K. Bate, Senior Program Associate with New America's Cybersecurity Initiative and a WiSe Fellow with the American Security Project ~| "THE CYBER WORKFORCE GAP: A NATIONAL SECURITY LIABILITY?," 5/17/17 https://warontherocks.com/2017/05/the-cyber-workforce-gap-a-national-security-liability/ ~~] In a remarkable confluence of events, the White House released their much-awaited AND that are on track to become much worse as the labor gap grows.

Importantly, recruiting efforts are inhospitable to women and minorities amplifying the workforce shortage—increasing diversity in secondary education is key[edit]

Mello 5/8 ~~[John P., freelance writer specializing in business and technology subjects, including consumer electronics, business computing ~| "Chance for women and minorities to enter the trillion dollar cybersecurity field" Report for Cybersecurity Ventures ~| http://cybersecurityventures.com/women-in-cybersecurity/ ~~] Technology companies, in general, are having trouble diversifying their workforces, but it's AND virtually all-male environment or a cliff of discrimination," she adds.

The talent shortage threatens U.S. critical infrastructure. Action now solves—early exposure to CS education solidifies the workforce and facilitates diversity[edit]

CSEC 2017 ~~[Computer Science Education Coalition, ~|"The Case for Computer Science January 2017 ~|" http://www.csecoalition.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/The-Case-for-Computer-Science-Final.pdf~~] America's shortage of qualified workers in computer science not only threatens America's role as an AND will help to ensure American economic prosperity and security in the decades ahead.

Cyber insecurity independently risks nuclear miscalculation – a skilled workforce shores up vulnerabilities in the private and public sectors[edit]

    • Nolan 15** (Andrew Nolan, Legislative Attorney at the Congressional Research Service, former Trial Attorney at the United States Department of Justice, holds a J.D. from George Washington University, 2015 ("Cybersecurity and Information Sharing: Legal Challenges and Solutions," CRS Report to Congress, March 16th, Available Online at http://fas.org/sgp/crs/intel/R43941.pdf, Accessed 07-05-2015, p. 1-3)

The high profile cyberattacks of 2014 and early 2015 appear to be indicative of a AND the words of one prominent cybersecurity expert—"vulnerabilities of staggering proportions."26

k-12 training creates a pipeline of cybersecurity professionals that resolves status quo dependence on inexperienced candidates[edit]

Evans et al. 2017 ~~[ Karen, former Administrator for E-Government and Information Technology at the Office of Management and Budget; Sameer Bhalotra, Co-Founder and CEO at StackRox, a new cybersecurity startup based in Mountain View, CA; Sheldon Whitehouse, Senator from Rhode Island; Michael McCaul, Rep. from Texas~| "From Awareness to Action A Cybersecurity Agenda for the 45th President," Report from the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) January 2017 ~| https://csis-prod.s3.amazonaws.com/s3fs-public/publication/170110_Lewis_CyberRecommendationsNextAdministration_Web.pdf ~~] Hiring of well-trained cybersecurity candidates is growing increasingly difficult due to skyrocketing demand AND in cyber is the only sustainable method to ensure our nation's continued cybersecurity.

Federal commitment to cybersecurity sends a signal to potential workers and companies resolving demand in the short term[edit]

    • Kaine 2016** ~~[Tim, Senator for Virginia and on the Committee on Armed Services, the Committee on the Budget, and the Committee on Foreign Relations, as well as the Career and Technical Education Caucus ~| "Washington: In Keynote Address, Kaine Discusses Formulating Cybersecurity Doctrine And Investments In Cyber Workforce" Plus Media Solutions, May 25, 2016, lexis~~]

My third thought is in the cyber security investment area. We have to invest AND parameters and what they're going to be dealing with and then adjust accordingly.


Plan: The United States federal government should substantially increase its funding of primary and secondary computer science and digital literacy education in the United States, including the provision of matching grants for teacher certification in computer science.[edit]


Teacher Certification is the most significant roadblock to effective CS education[edit]

Heitin 2014 ~~[Liana, reporter for Edweek "Computer Science: Not Just an Elective Anymore" http://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2014/02/26/22computer_ep.h33.html ~~] Even with legislation to broaden access to computer science moving forward, hurdles in school AND . They often leave the classroom for more-lucrative jobs in industry.

Federal funding for certification is key—the aff provides qualified CS education that competes with the private sector[edit]

Nagar & Atkinson 2016 ~~[Adams, economic policy analyst at the Information Technology and Innovation Foundation; & Robert. founder and president of the Information Technology and Innovation Foundation ~| "The Case for Improving U.S. Computer Science Education" MAY 2016 ~| http://www2.itif.org/2016-computer-science-education.pdf ~~] Teach computer science in all high schools States should prioritize making computer science available in AND science. Congress should include these funding proposals in the 2017 fiscal budget.

And Federal action sends a signal to investors that the US will commit to a computer literate workforce[edit]

Stern 4/7 ~~[Paula, former chairwoman of the US International Trade Commision and senior adviser to the National Center for Women & Information Technology~| "We can't keep jobs in the US if we can't fill them" The Hill 4/7/17 ~| http://thehill.com/blogs/pundits-blog/labor/327829-we-cant-keep-jobs-in-the-us-if-we-cant-fill-them ~~] To entice American and foreign corporations to invest in new factories, foundries and facilities AND the language of coding and can begin to visualize rewarding computer science careers.

Despite existing state and local efforts only a stronger federal commitment to computer science education can unify a patchwork of programs[edit]

Herold 3/21 ~~[Benjamin, staff writer for Education Week ~| "With Hacking in Headlines, K-12 Cybersecurity Ed. Gets More Attention" Education Week Vol. 36, Issue 25, Pages 1, 15, March 21^^st^^, 2017 ~| http://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2017/03/22/with-hacking-in-headlines-k-12-cybersecurity-ed.html~~] Amid a steady drumbeat of reports on cyber-espionage and election-related hackings AND plans to unveil a yearlong cybersecurity course for high schools in fall 2018.

1NC VS SP1[edit]

Topicality - Postsecondary[edit]

    • ===1NC===**

A) Interpretation: "Primary and secondary education" refers to schooling ranging from elementary to high school education[edit]

    • U.S. Department of Education 8** (International Affairs Office, U.S. Department of Education, Feb 2008. "Organization of U.S. Education: The School Level,")

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS Primary schools are called elementary schools, intermediate (upper primary AND different interests and capabilities who follow different educational tracks within the same school.

B) "Education" is prescribed classroom instruction[edit]

Education (noun): The act or process of educating; the result of educating AND education for the bar or the pulpit; he has finished his education.

C) Violation: the plan funds teaching certification programs, which are postsecondary education —[edit]

    • Putnam 81** (John F. Putnam, National Center for Education Statistics. "Postsecondary Student Terminology: A Handbook of Terms and Definitions for Describing Students in Postsecondary Education," March 1981.)

A postsecondary education institution is defined as an academic, vocational, technical, home AND FICE Report,, vol. 1, no. 3 (June 1974).

D) Prefer our interpretation:[edit]

1) Limits – allowing affirmatives to fund or regulate postsecondary education drastically and unfairly expands the negative's research burden –[edit]

2) Ground – postsecondary education skirts the core controversy of federal vs. state regulation of schools – eliminates core generics specific to public education[edit]

Federalism DA[edit]

The Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) gave decision-making power back to the states, and shifted from educational federalism to a state-centered model.[edit]

McGuinn 2016 (Patrick, Associate Professor of Political Science at Drew University, "From No Child Left behind to the Every Student Succeeds Act: Federalism and the Education Legacy of the Obama Administration", Publius: The Journal of Federalism volume 46 number 3, pp. 392~^415, June 5^^th^^ 2016, accessed 6/9/17, jk) Political scientists Paul Peterson, Kenneth Wong, and Barry Rabe (1986) observed AND 2016). That is American federalism at work, for better or worse.

Normal means funding for teacher certification is through competitive grants tied to evidence-based evaluation[edit]

ASCD 2016 ~~[Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, membership-based nonprofit organization dedicated to excellence in learning, teaching, and leading~| "ESSA Title II And Support for Educators Frequently Asked Questions" Publication by ASCD, March 22, 2016 ~| http://www.ascd.org/ASCD/pdf/siteASCD/policy/ESSA-Title-II-FAQ_Mar222016.pdf ~~] 4. What Title II programs does ESSA maintain? • Teacher Quality Partnership Grants AND reliable, trustworthy, and valid evidence to suggest the program is effective.

Competetive grants tied to evaluation expand federal control and limit uncompetitive states from formula grants[edit]

Manna & Ryan 2011 ~~[Paul R., Verkuil associate professor of public policy and associate professor of government at the College of William & Mary; Laura, Research Assistant ~|"Competitive Grants and Educational Federalism: President Obama's Race to the Top Program in Theory and Practice" Publius, Vol. 41, No. 3, The State of American Federalism 2010-2011 (Summer 2011), pp. 522-546~~] First, with RTTT the Obama administration has advanced an agenda that has the potential AND partners and providing them access to funds that may help valuable reforms gain traction

Every instance of federalism is key – states are better at handling their own issues, and federalism as a structure needs to be upheld.[edit]

Hawkins 2017 (Marcus, an award-winning journalist who spent more than a decade working the trenches at several different newspapers, "A Definition of Federalism: The Case for Reinvigorating State's Rights", https://www.thoughtco.com/a-definition-of-federalism-3303456, accessed 6/9/17, jk) An ongoing battle rages over the proper size and role of the federal government, AND Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 if passed in its present form.

Cooperative federalism is key to respond effectively to a variety of crises, including natural disasters, pandemics, and bioweapons[edit]

    • Kettl 06** (Donald, professor at the School of Public Policy and a nonresident senior fellow at the Brookings Institution, "Is the Worst Yet to Come?" The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, accessed 8-27-14)

Following September 11, 2001, public officials everywhere promised that the nation would leani AND an effective orchestra conductor, Americans will needlessly suffer in any wicked problem.

Successful bioterror attack causes extinction[edit]

Anders Sandberg et al., James Martin Research Fellow, Future of Humanity Institute, Oxford University, "How Can We Reduce the Risk of Human Extinction?" BULLETIN OF THE ATOMIC SCIENTISTS, 9-9-08, http://www.thebulletin.org/web-edition/features/how-can-we-reduce-the-risk-of-human-extinction, accessed 5-2-10. The risks from anthropogenic hazards appear at present larger than those from natural ones. AND may increase as biotechnologies continue to improve at a rate rivaling Moore's Law.


And, productivity gains from automation offset employment effects—no economic collapse[edit]

    • Manyika et al 17** (James Manyika Director, McKinsey Global Institute; Senior Partner, McKinsey & Company San Francisco. "A FUTURE THAT WORKS: AUTOMATION, EMPLOYMENT, AND PRODUCTIVITY," January 2017.)

The world is in need of a new engine of GDP growth. Shifting demographics AND requiring all workers to cohabit extensively with technology and reshaping the corporate landscape.

1NC: No Impact - Econ Collapse[edit]

Economic collapse doesn't cause war[edit]

Daniel **Drezner 14**, IR prof at Tufts, The System Worked: Global Economic Governance during the Great Recession, World Politics, Volume 66. Number 1, January 2014, pp. 123-164 The final significant outcome addresses a dog that hasn't barked: the effect of the AND surge in protectionist nationalism or ethnic exclusion that might have been expected."43

2NC: Turn: AMBioterrorism[edit]

Advances in 3D printing cause bioterrorism[edit]

Lane 2014 ~~[Earl, senior communications officer for the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) in Washington, DC ~| "As Do-It-Yourself Manufacturing Emerges, Experts Consider Security Risks" American Association for the Advancement of Science ~| https://www.aaas.org/news/do-it-yourself-manufacturing-emerges-experts-consider-security-risks ~~] As 3-D printers have become cheaper and more capable, they are being AND stealthy" and less detectable in ways that are unfamiliar to government specialists?

1NC: No Solvency—AM—Public Perception[edit]

Aff can't solve advanced manufacturing—public perception of manufacturing decline dissuades prospective workers[edit]

PCAST 2014 ~~[President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology,an advisory group of the Nation's leading scientists and engineers, appointed by the President to augment the science and technology advice available to him from inside the White House and from cabinet departments and other Federal agencies ~| "REPORT TO THE PRESIDENT ACCELERATING U.S. ADVANCED MANUFACTURING" PCAST Report October 2014 ~| https://www.manufacturingusa.com/sites/prod/files/amp20_report_final.pdf ~~] Shifting the Misconceptions the Public Holds of Manufacturing: For decades, workers flocked to AND advanced manufacturing and product realization starting at early ages and through graduate education.


No significant impact to cyber attacks – probability, current defense checks, and too difficult to coordinate[edit]

    • Gartzke and Lindsay '15** ~~[Erik Gartzke is professor of political science at the University of California, San Diego. Jon R. Lindsay is assistant professor of digital media and global affairs at the Munk School of Global Affairs, University of Toronto. Weaving Tangled Webs: Offense, Defense, and Deception in Cyberspace, Security Studies, 24:316–348, 2015.~~]

Indeed, the US Department of Defense gets attacked ten million times a day; AND for a more general tendency toward offense dominance across the entire cyber domain.

1NC: No Talent Shortage[edit]

Squo solves demand—internal training and existing education programs[edit]

Libicki et al 2014 ~~[Martin C., American scholar and Professor at the Frederick S. Pardee RAND Graduate School in Santa Monica, California ; David Senty, RAND senior fellow who previously served as chief of staff at the U.S. Cyber Command; Julia Pollack, reference and instruction librarian at CUNY-Bronx Community College ~| "H4CKER5 WANTED: An Examination of the Cybersecurity Labor Market" Report for the Rand Corporation, 2014 ~| http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/research_reports/RR400/RR430/RAND_RR430.pdf ~~] Our assessment does not refute this position—good cybersecurity professionals are in high demand AND indications of a decrease in the demand for cybersecurity professionals started to appear.

1NC vs Starter Pack 3[edit]


Interpretation: the affirmative should defend the desirability of a topical plan that affirms the United States federal government should substantially increase its funding and/or regulation of elementary and/or secondary education in the United States.[edit]

A. "United States Federal Government should" means the debate is solely about the outcome of a policy established by governmental means[edit]

Ericson, 3 (Jon M., Dean Emeritus of the College of Liberal Arts – California Polytechnic U., et al., The Debater's Guide, Third Edition, p. 4) The Proposition of Policy: Urging Future Action In policy propositions, each topic contains AND compelling reasons for an audience to perform the future action that you propose.

B. The word "Resolved" before the colon reflects a legislative forum[edit]

Army Officer School '04(5-12, "18:17, 20 July 2017 (PDT)~# 12, Punctuation – The Colon and Semicolon", http://usawocc.army.mil/IMI/wg12.htm) The colon introduces the following: a. A list, but only after " AND resolved:" Resolved: (colon) That this council petition the mayor.

Violation: The affirmative does not present a topical plan text.[edit]

Vote Negative -[edit]

1. Institutional knowledge – our framework prioritizes a method of democratic engagement and commitment to participatory change - the affirmative's criteria for political change causes a fracturing of politics and trades off with genuine political change.[edit]

Chandler 7 - Professor of International Relations at the University of Westminster 18:17, 20 July 2017 (PDT)~[David, "The Attraction of Post-Territorial Politics: Ethics and Activism in the International Sphere," The Inaugural Lecture of Professor David Chandler, 2 May 2007, http://www.davidchandler.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/Inaugural-lecture.pdf18:17, 20 July 2017 (PDT)~] However, politics is no less important to many of us today. Politics still AND peers and colleagues at the level of political or intellectual debate and organisation.

2. Deliberative dialogue - the resolution provides fair, limited balance of ground to both the aff and the neg – discarding the opportunity of focus provided by the resolution turns debate into a monologue which guts all benefits of the activity.[edit]

Hanghoj 08 – PhD, assistant professor, School of Education, University of Aarhus, also affiliated with the Danish Research Centre on Education and Advanced Media Materials, located at the Institute of Literature, Media and Cultural Studies at the University of Southern Denmark 18:17, 20 July 2017 (PDT)~[Thorkild, PLAYFUL KNOWLEDGE An Explorative Study of Educational Gaming, PhD Dissertation Institute of Literature, Media and Cultural Studies University of Southern Denmark 2008, http://static.sdu.dk/mediafiles/Files/Information_til/Studerende_ved_SDU/Din_uddannelse/phd_hum/afhandlinger/2009/ThorkilHanghoej.pdf18:17, 20 July 2017 (PDT)~] 3.3.1. Balancing teaching and gaming Debate games are often AND dialogue as an end in itself" (Wegerif, 2006: 61).

Capitalism Kritik[edit]

Link: Their rejection of education as a space of productivity is actively hostile to an anti-capitalist orientation – ethics demand that we utilize spaces such as debate to generate an anti-capitalist pedagogy that can play a fundamental role in shaping the material relations of power. Instead of resigning ourselves to an experience of impotentiality, the negative can create counter-hegemonic enclaves to challenge neoliberal knowledge production – this provides a new vocabulary to discuss social and political problems, develop the requisite skills to deploy them and reverse the neoliberal orthodoxy. As an educator, this is your responsibility[edit]

Giroux, 5 American scholar and cultural critic. One of the founding theorists of critical pedagogy, Henry, "Cultural Studies in Dark Times: Public Pedagogy and the Challenge of Neoliberalism," http://www.uta.edu/huma/agger/fastcapitalism/1_2/giroux.html, In opposition to these positions, I want to reclaim a tradition in radical educational AND through new forms of pedagogical praxis, global protests, and collective resistance.

Link: Our pedagogy has the ability to connect critical theory to practice- the academy has become the fodder of neoliberalism- we need to move past revelations and theorizing and it is your responsibility as an academic to provide a new vocabulary for engaging the social order[edit]

Giroux, 5 American scholar and cultural critic. One of the founding theorists of critical pedagogy, Henry, "Cultural Studies in Dark Times: Public Pedagogy and the Challenge of Neoliberalism," http://www.uta.edu/huma/agger/fastcapitalism/1_2/giroux.html, Increasingly, education appears useful only to those who hold political and economic power, AND trust, conviction, and courage that are vital to a substantive democracy.

Impact: Capitalism is the root cause of terror[edit]

Slater 6 18:17, 20 July 2017 (PDT)~[Philip, author of the bestseller, The Pursuit of Loneliness, and nine other nonfiction books, The Root Causes of Terrorism and Why No One Wants to End Them, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/philip-slater/the-root-causes-of-terror_b_32466.html18:17, 20 July 2017 (PDT)~] For of all capitalist enterprises, the extractive industries are probably the most deserving of AND and decimate the middle class. In other words, to kill hope.

Alternative: Voting negative refuses the affirmative in favor of Historical Materialist Pedagogy. International inequality is sutured by the unequal circulation of capital. Without revolutionary theory, there can be no revolutionary moment. Only starting from the structural antagonisms produced by wage labor can lead to transformative politics.[edit]

Ebert '918:17, 20 July 2017 (PDT)~[Teresa, Associate Professor of English, State University of New York at Albany, THE TASK OF CULTURAL CRITIQUE, pp. 92-9518:17, 20 July 2017 (PDT)~] Unlike these rewritings, which reaffirm in a somewhat new language the system of wage AND Instead, the pedagogy of critique is a worldly teaching of the worldly.



The aff may be a pre-requisite but it is not a complete politics – their method of study cannot defend or sustain itself which guarantees backlash and re-appropriation.[edit]

Ford 17 – (Derek R., Prof of Education at DePauw University, PhD Syracuse, "Studying like a communist: Affect, the Party, and the educational limits to capitalism," Incorporating ACCESS, Volume 49, 2017 - Issue 5, Pages 452-461)//a-berg Studying is, like the crowd event, a beautiful moment of encounter, the AND foreclosed as the crowd is dispersed through redirection, exhaustion, or repression.


No biopolitics impact —- democracy checks[edit]

Dickinson 4 (Edward R. – Professor of History at UC Davis, "Biopolitics, Fascism, Democracy: Some Reflections on Our Discourse About "Modernity"," in Central European History, Volume 37, Issue 1, March 2004, http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=2758180&fileId=S0008938900002776) And it is, of course, embedded in a broader discursive complex (institutions AND create "multiple modernities," modern societies with quite radically differing potentials.91

Contemporary uses of biopolitics are not bad – it enables productive social reforms.[edit]

Ojakangas 5 (Mika – Professor of Political Thought at the University of Jyvaskyla, "Impossible Dialogue on Bio-power: Agamben and Foucault," in Foucault Studies, Number 2, p. 26-27, http://dferagi.webs.ull.es/d/social2/docs/Foucault.3.pdf) In fact, the history of modern Western societies would be quite incomprehensible without taking AND collective – that is the measure of the success of bio-power.

1NC VS SP2[edit]

T – substantial[edit]

1nc shell[edit]

Interpretation—"substantial" requires creating a new program.[edit]

    • Redwoods.edu no date** ~~[1] Calculus BC

SUBSTANTIAL CHANGE A new program based upon an active proposal. This action will initiate a new control number.

Violation: the aff modifies existing sex education standards and programs[edit]

Vote neg:[edit]

Limits—justifies an infinite number of affs that make minor changes to existing education programs—allows hyperspecific and small affs with massive advantage areas—explodes neg research burden[edit]

Ground—modifications to existing programs destroy DA and mechanism counterplan ground—destroys link uniqueness contextual counterplan solvency[edit]

Topicality is a voter for fairness and education[edit]


Substantial in the context of education regulation means creating a new course based on active standards.[edit]

    • MCCD no date** ~~[2] Calculus BC

Substantial Course Change: An action to create a new course record based upon an AND Course Prior to Transfer Level (CB21) • Noncredit Eligibility (CB22)

Substantial is important[edit]

    • Collins English dictionary 14** ~~[3] Calculus BC

substantial (səbˈstænʃəl) adj 1. of a considerable size or value: substantial AND of or relating to substance rather than to attributes, accidents, or modifications

ATC Politics DA[edit]


ATC privatization will pass – but it's contentions – Trump is pushing and political capital is key[edit]

The White House dispatched a high-ranking official to Capitol Hill on Wednesday in AND up debate on the FAA bill next week, with amendments due Monday.

President Obama's 2017 budget — the final budget he will prepare as president — proposes AND ultra-conservative politicians are known for strongly supporting abstinence-only programs.

Only privatized ATC can set efficient prices and reduce delays – Canada proves[edit]

Steven A. **Morrison** (Chair, Department of Economics, Northeastern University) **and** Clifford **Winston** (Senior Fellow Economic Studies @ Brookings) – May **2008**, Delayed! U.S. Aviation Infrastructure Policy at a Crossroads, http://www.brookings.edu/research/articles/2008/05/~~/media/Research/Files/Articles/2008/5/aviation%20winston/Winston_aviation_chpt2.PDF Performance of Air Traffic Control Today, the probability of dying in a commercial aviation AND it appears inevitable that privatization will be thoroughly—and justifiably—explored.

Investment in aviation efficiency is uniquely productive – it solves delays, boosts competitiveness, enhances tourism, and promotes economic development.[edit]

The total national economic impact of civil aviation exceeded more than $900 billion and AND economic well being of the U.S. economy and its citizens.

Aviation affects all parts of the economy – the industry will collapse without new capacity to solve congestion.[edit]

Civil aviation has become an integral part of the U.S. economy. AND Conversely, additional investment in the nation's aviation infrastructure will facilitate economic growth.

Economic decline triggers nuclear war[edit]

Harris and Burrows 9 (Mathew, PhD European History at Cambridge, counselor in the National Intelligence Council (NIC) and Jennifer, member of the NIC's Long Range Analysis Unit "Revisiting the Future: Geopolitical Effects of the Financial Crisis" http://www.ciaonet.org/journals/twq/v32i2/f_0016178_13952.pdf, AM) Increased Potential for Global Conflict Of course, the report encompasses more than economics and AND within and between states in a more dog-eat-dog world.

States CP[edit]

1NC Sex Ed[edit]

The Fifty United States and all relevant territories should eliminate funding for abstinence-only sex education and fully fund sexual education programs that meet the criteria established by the Real Education for Healthy Youth Act.[edit]

States are key to education and preventing "one size fits all" programs. The CP also aligns responsibility and moves towards a more practical decision calculus.[edit]

    • Kelly and Hess** 9/15/**2015** ~~[Andrew P. Kelly is a resident scholar and director of the Center on Higher Education Reform at the American Entrprise Institute. Frederick M. Hess is director of education policy studies at the American Enterprise Institute and author of the new book, "Letters to a Young Education Reformer." More Than a Slogan Here are five good reasons federalism is so important in education. https://www.usnews.com/opinion/knowledge-bank/2015/09/15/5-reasons-federalism-in-education-matters~~] Calculus BC

It's a matter of size. Education advocates suffer from severe bouts of Finland and AND is both accountable to the public and dynamic enough to meet today's challenges.

Despite these federal efforts, sex education policy is mostly decentralized. And, since AND five require that it be due to a family's religious or moral beliefs.


Alt cause—poverty[edit]

    • ====Poverty negatively affects sexual health.====**
    • Bell 09 ~~[Kelly J. Kelly J. Bell graduated in 2011 with a concentration in Psychology from Simmons College in Boston, MA. "Wake Up and Smell the Condoms: An Analysis of Sex Education Programs in the United States, the Netherlands, Sweden, Australia, France, and Germany." Inquiries 2009m Vol. 1 No. 1. SH~~]**

Discouragingly, even if the US adopts a comprehensive sex education curriculum and funds sexual AND is extremely complicated and a topic that must be saved for another paper.

Low income minorities don't receive the same sex education as their upper class peers.[edit]

Horne 15 ~~[Horne, Emily A., "Sexual Education across the United States: Are we doing it right?" (2015). Scripps Senior Theses. Paper 676. http://scholarship.claremont.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1675&context=scripps_theses pg. 11~~] Calculus BC Another large problem for sexual education is that racial minorities are less likely to receive AND worse in low-income, minority districts (Guzzo &Hayford 2012)

Circumvention – outside influences[edit]

Sexual socialization begins in childhood, meaning biases are pre-entrenched by parents and community standards.[edit]

    • Shtarkshall, Santelli, and Hirsch 2k7** ~~[Ronny A. Shtarkshall is head of the Social Science and Health Behavior Program, Braun School of Public Health, and of community medicine at the Hebrew University and Hadassah Medical Organization, Jerusalem. John S. Santelli is professor of clinical population and family health and clinical pediatrics, Heilbrunn Department of Population and Family Health; and Jennifer S. Hirsch is associate professor of sociomedical sciences—both at the Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York. Guttmacher institute, Sex Education and Sexual Socialization: Roles for Educators and Parents, https://www.guttmacher.org/journals/psrh/2007/sex-education-and-sexual-socialization-roles-educators-and-parents~~] Calculus BC

Socialization, in contrast, is the process through which an individual acquires an understanding AND family and community influences on sexuality is an integral component of sex education.

Parents want CSE, but prefer that they retain their roles and that schools emphasize abstinence.[edit]

    • Shtarkshall, Santelli, and Hirsch 2k7** ~~[Ronny A. Shtarkshall is head of the Social Science and Health Behavior Program, Braun School of Public Health, and of community medicine at the Hebrew University and Hadassah Medical Organization, Jerusalem. John S. Santelli is professor of clinical population and family health and clinical pediatrics, Heilbrunn Department of Population and Family Health; and Jennifer S. Hirsch is associate professor of sociomedical sciences—both at the Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York. Guttmacher institute, Sex Education and Sexual Socialization: Roles for Educators and Parents, https://www.guttmacher.org/journals/psrh/2007/sex-education-and-sexual-socialization-roles-educators-and-parents~~] Calculus BC

A third set of considerations pertinent to education and socialization are parent and adolescent preferences AND emphasizing abstinence, and only 15% wanted abstinence-only sex education.

UQ – squo improving (religion)[edit]

The Vatican is pushing for identity based CSE in the squo.[edit]

The Vatican At the last World Youth Day held in Poland, 2016, the AND modern comprehensive sex education buzzword which is being pushed by all Western countries.

UQ—Teen pregnancy low[edit]

Teen pregnancy low now[edit]

Teen Pregnancy in the United States adolescent reproductive health logo: Healthy teens, healthy AND to inform and direct interventions and resources to areas with the greatest need.