FouCULT Zaiana Falcon/Gabe Pena

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Contents

1AC[edit]

Advantage[edit]

Welcome to the learning society – students across the United States are subjected to ceaseless testing, training, learning in order to activate their potential. The organizing principle of this society is to optimize the productivity of each student, to make sure that they live up to their potential, so that they can be valuable and contributing members of a risk-filled economic system.[edit]

    • Lewis 11** – (Tyson E. Lewis, PhD. in educational philosophy from UCLA, Associate Professor of Educational Foundations at Montclair State University, "Rethinking the Learning Society: Giorgio Agamben on Studying, Stupidity, and Impotence," Studies in Philosophy and Education November 2011, Volume 30, Issue 6, pp 585–599)//a-berg

Recently there have been several important critiques of learning discourse as well as the AND conclusions concerning learning and its alternatives which these authors have not adequately addressed.


The invisible consequence of this learning society is abandonment – the demand to activate the potential of students produces the sacrifice of impotentiality, the sacrifice of those who fail or are otherwise not capable of living up to those demands. This lack of potential is projected outwards onto the vulnerable other, enabling a sovereign decision between what life is valuable and what life is not.[edit]

Tyson Edward **Lewis 13** – (It's a Profane Life: Giorgio Agamben on the freedom of im-potentiality in education, 26 Mar 2013, Educational Philosophy and Theory, Volume 46, 2014, Issue 4 pg. 334-347)//a-berg For Agamben, the human community constitutes itself through the production of certain metaphysical distinctions AND and fallible freedom of study which is beyond measure and beyond predefined ends.


In the school system, the sacrifice of those deemed not worthy takes the form of zero tolerance policy, police raids, and low intensity warfare. Schools become states of exception, in which students are exposed to the force of sovereign power in a state of educational bare life.[edit]

    • Lewis 2006** – (Tyson E., "The school as an exceptional space: Rethinking education from the perspective of the biopedagogical" Educational Theory; Urbana 56(2), 159–176.)//a-berg

Education in the inner city is intimately linked with biopower in that its primary function AND an increasingly contested terrain where the stakes against educational death are clearly articulated.


These states of exception hold educational life in suspension, at the whim of the sovereign's decision between valuable life and life that can be sacrificed.[edit]

    • Lewis 2006** – (Tyson E., "The school as an exceptional space: Rethinking education from the perspective of the biopedagogical" Educational Theory; Urbana 56(2), 159–176.)//a-berg

Drawing on Greek philosophy, Agamben articulates the question of politics in Western culture as AND result the biopedagogical reveals its internal complicity with an underlying state of exception.


This biopolitical determination of which life is valuable and which life is not turns politics murderous – the entirety of the world is reduced to bare life in an attempt to rid the public sphere of all risk. The only option becomes the extermination of all life.[edit]

These historic transformations have not only brought more violence to the core of the political AND actions of acknowledging and welcoming, of extending hospitality and solidarity towards others.


Method[edit]

In opposition to this learning society which demands that we become good and productive students, we affirm a study of the resolution. Through our study, we render the sovereign logics embedded in the resolution inoperative by refusing to obey the logic of learning. Instead of activating our potential and becoming productive, well-educated students, we prefer the role of the studier, withdrawing from the normative pressures of the education system. This operates to interrupt the ultimate demand of the learning society – either be productive or be abandoned.[edit]

    • Lewis 15** (Tyson E., associate professor of art education at the University of North Texas, THE POTENTIALITY OF STUDY: GIORGIO AGAMBEN ON THE POLITICS OF EDUCATIONAL EXCEPTIONALITY, Symploke; Lincoln 22.1/2 (2015): 275-292,441)//a-berg

While Agamben draws our attention to the centrality of im-potentiality within politics, AND In this sense, Agamben's coming community is actually a community of study.


Studying allows us to defer and delay the pressure placed on us to realize our potentials, to become all that we are supposed to be. By changing the everyday practices and roles that define learning, we can change the sovereign logics that reside at its core.[edit]

    • Lewis 14** – Tyson E., "The Fundamental Ontology of Study, Educational Theory Volume 64 Iss. 2, 9 April 2014, pg 163-178

It will be helpful to begin with a brief overview of how Agamben defines studying AND that embodies this potentiality as a kind of study journal or study log.


Study is an inactivity of resistance – deferring the call to action and embracing our impotential allows us to reject the internalization of state expectations and reverse the violence of the learning society.[edit]

Snoek 12 (Anke, PhD in Philosophy Department @ Macquarie U., Agamben's Joyful Kafka, pg 82-85)

      • Language Modified

Given the preceding sketch Agamben gives of power and possibilities (the law's being in AND are other strategies, aside from active resistance, to reverse political situations.


Structures of biopolitical control are empty of positive content, capable of only inflicting death or doing nothing —- our strategy is to desert biopolitical apparatuses such as the education system, rather than reform it.[edit]

Prozorov 10 (Sergei – Professor of Political and Economic Studies at the University of Helsinki, "Why Giorgio Agamben is an optimist," in Philosophy Social Criticism, Volume 36, Number 9, p. 1059-1060, November 2010, http://psc.sagepub.com/content/36/9/1053.abstract) In a later work, Agamben generalizes this logic and transforms it into a basic AND achieved by the practice of subtraction that we address in the following section.

1NC vs Starter Pack 1[edit]

    • =T=**


A) Interpretation: "Primary and secondary education" refers to schooling ranging from elementary to high school education[edit]

    • U.S. Department of Education 8** (International Affairs Office, U.S. Department of Education, Feb 2008. "Organization of U.S. Education: The School Level,")

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS Primary schools are called elementary schools, intermediate (upper primary AND different interests and capabilities who follow different educational tracks within the same school.


Cap[edit]

The aff aims to satisfy capitalism's urge for limitless growth - causes exploitation, destruction of democracies, and destroys value to life while trying to stave off the inevitable collapse[edit]

What lies at the heart of this insanity? It is this: Commanding an AND people and the natural environment remain stronger than the desire to accumulate wealth.


Full employment is just a pipe dream of late capitalism that remains solely as ideological mystification. Excess populations are relegated disposable creating contemporary forms of fascist violence like the expansion of global policing and immigrant detention centers[edit]

    • Srnicek and Williams 2015 (**Nick and Alex, lecturers @ City University of London, "Inventing the Future, Postcapitalism and a World Without Work", Verso, 2015**)**

If full employment remains operative only as an ideological mystification, its normalisation of work AND use to manage surplus populations, ranging from disciplined integration to violent exclusion.


Its try or die—Capitalism's narcissistic drive makes democratization of the market impossible—humanity is at a crossroads—the timeframe is now[edit]

Richard A. **Smith 7**, Research Associate at the Institute for Policy Research & Development, UK; PhD in History from UCLA, June 2007, "The Eco-suicidal Economics of Adam Smith," Capitalism Nature Socialism, Vol. 18, No. 2, p. 22-43 So there you have it: insatiable growth and consumption is destroying the planet and AND a practical working socialist democracy, or we face ecological and social collapse.


Voting negative refuses the affirmative in favor of Historical Materialist Pedagogy. International inequality is sutured by the unequal circulation of capital. Without revolutionary theory, there can be no revolutionary moment. Only starting from the structural antagonisms produced by wage labor can lead to transformative politics.[edit]

    • Ebert '9** ~~[Teresa, Associate Professor of English, State University of New York at Albany, THE TASK OF CULTURAL CRITIQUE, pp. 92-95~~]

Unlike these rewritings, which reaffirm in a somewhat new language the system of wage AND Instead, the pedagogy of critique is a worldly teaching of the worldly.


ON CASE[edit]

Automation[edit]

No unemployment crisis – production gains offset employment costs[edit]

    • Manyika et al 17** (James Manyika Director, McKinsey Global Institute; Senior Partner, McKinsey & Company San Francisco. "A FUTURE THAT WORKS: AUTOMATION, EMPLOYMENT, AND PRODUCTIVITY," January 2017.)

A recurring question about automation is its effect on employment. Many forecasters paint a AND higher-level capabilities, especially those that require social and emotional ones.


Aff can't solve for adaptive workforce education—accelerating changes will require constant re-education and certification[edit]

The Economist 2016 ~~[ "Automation and Anxiety: Will Smarter Machines Cause Mass Unemployment," The Economist, Special Report on Artificial Intelligence, 6/25/16 ~| http://www.economist.com/news/special-report/21700758-will-smarter-machines-cause-mass-unemployment-automation-and-anxiety~~] Even outside the AI community, there is a broad consensus that technological progress, AND -operation between government, training providers and employers over certification would help.


Advanced Manufacturing[edit]

1NC: Heg Bad[edit]

Hegemony fails and destabilizes regional powers – no impact to the transition – turns case – disregard their fearmongering[edit]

    • Posen** **14 – **Ford International Professor of Political Science at MIT and the director of MIT's Security Studies Program (Barry, "Restraint: A New Foundation for U.S. Grand Strategy," Cornell University Press, p. 60-62, June 24, 2014)

Partisans of Liberal Hegemony might accept some of the factual statements above but would argue AND about making the theory the basis for U.S. grand strategy.


Heg fails and is terminally unsustainable – your authors are biased and paid off.[edit]

    • Shlapak 15, **Senior International Policy Analyst at RAND Corporation, 3/20/2015 David A., "Towards a More Modest American Strategy", Survival: Global Politics and Strategy, Volume 57 Issue 2, Pgs. 59-78,

The Unipolar Moment Is Over Since the fall of the Soviet Union, the world AND disappear – is and must remain the primary mission of US armed forces.


1NC: Multipolarity Now[edit]

Peaceful global transition to multipolarity now—EU summit proves—it'll solve conflict[edit]

To call President Donald Trump's meeting last week with European Union officials a failure would AND whether that multi-polar world can exist peacefully remains to be seen.


CyberSecurity[edit]

No significant impact to cyber attacks – probability, current defense checks, and too difficult to coordinate[edit]

    • Gartzke and Lindsay '15** ~~[Erik Gartzke is professor of political science at the University of California, San Diego. Jon R. Lindsay is assistant professor of digital media and global affairs at the Munk School of Global Affairs, University of Toronto. Weaving Tangled Webs: Offense, Defense, and Deception in Cyberspace, Security Studies, 24:316–348, 2015.~~]

Indeed, the US Department of Defense gets attacked ten million times a day; AND for a more general tendency toward offense dominance across the entire cyber domain.


Case DA[edit]

1NC vs Starter Pack 2[edit]

T[edit]

Interpretation—"substantial" requires creating a new program.[edit]

    • Redwoods.edu no date** ~~[1] Calculus BC


SUBSTANTIAL CHANGE A new program based upon an active proposal. This action will initiate a new control number.[edit]

CAP[edit]

    • ====Societies without capitalism also have no sexual repression-sexual repression, especially in relation to women and homosexuality, is a problem of capitalism.====**
    • McGregor 4/5/11 (Sheila, "Sexuality, Alienation, and Capitalism" International Socialism: A Quarterly Review of Socialist Theory, Issue 130, McGregor is a Director of Australian Indigenous Chamber of Commerce. She was also the President of the Royal Hospital for Women's Foundation. She's also been named the leading lawyer for like a billion different communications related organizations that I can't be bothered to list here. **http://isj.org.uk/sexuality-alienation-and-capitalism/**, Accessed 6-27-17, Powers)**

The egalitarian relations between the sexes that characterised human prehistory came to an end with AND They have had profound repercussions for the sexuality of both men and women.


    • ====The problem of sexual repression is not a problem of old conservatives but of capitalism-sexual repression has been historically linked to capitalist societies. ====**
    • Ollman 78 (Bertell, "Social and Sexual Revolution"Ollman is a professor of politics at New York University, teaching both dialectical and social theory. He has written many academic works on Marxist theory. **https://www.nyu.edu/projects/ollman/docs/ssr_ch06.php**, Accessed 6-27-17 Powers)**

Without roots in the particular society in which they are found (capitalism), it AND it is being manipulated to serve the ends of the capitalist system.24


Its try or die—Capitalism's narcissistic drive makes democratization of the market impossible—humanity is at a crossroads—the timeframe is now[edit]

Richard A. **Smith 7**, Research Associate at the Institute for Policy Research & Development, UK; PhD in History from UCLA, June 2007, "The Eco-suicidal Economics of Adam Smith," Capitalism Nature Socialism, Vol. 18, No. 2, p. 22-43 So there you have it: insatiable growth and consumption is destroying the planet and AND a practical working socialist democracy, or we face ecological and social collapse.


Voting negative refuses the affirmative in favor of Historical Materialist Pedagogy. International inequality is sutured by the unequal circulation of capital. Without revolutionary theory, there can be no revolutionary moment. Only starting from the structural antagonisms produced by wage labor can lead to transformative politics.[edit]

    • Ebert '9** ~~[Teresa, Associate Professor of English, State University of New York at Albany, THE TASK OF CULTURAL CRITIQUE, pp. 92-95~~]

Unlike these rewritings, which reaffirm in a somewhat new language the system of wage AND Instead, the pedagogy of critique is a worldly teaching of the worldly.


Case[edit]

Heteronormativity[edit]

Comprehensive sex ed is an assimilatory tactic of cisheteropatriarchy – the progressive narrative of inclusion envelops deviant subjects into a neoliberal restructuring of the nuclear family, which only permits the biopolitical management of trans and gender non-conforming subjects.[edit]

    • Shannon 16** (Barrie Shannon, PhD Candidate at the School of Humanities and Social Science, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, Australia. "Comprehensive for who? Neoliberal directives in Australian 'comprehensive' sexuality education and the erasure of GLBTIQ identity," Sex Education, 2016)~~[discourse modified~~]*

Sameness, 'homonormativity' and GLBTIQ erasure Harris and Farrington (2014) and Riggs AND capability to feel 'intimately linked' with the world around them is diminished.


Canada proves that sex education is designed to outline who and what LGBTQ+ and disabled people need to be. Comprehensive sex education contends itself to be diverse and inclusive, but mimics the narrowed view of neoliberal mentality and reinforces violence against disabled people in the name of "normal"[edit]

    • McMinn 17** (TL McMinn thesis for Master of Arts Department of Curriculum, Teaching, and Learning Ontario Institute for Studies in Education University of Toronto "Sex Education as Neoliberal Inclusion: Hetero-cis-ableism in Ontario's 2015 Health and Physical Education Curriculum" <http://search.proquest.com/docview/1884603730?pq-origsite=gscholar>)

The following research question informed this study: how does hetero-cis-ableism AND are viewed as unnecessary, overwrought, and just plain uncomfortable to have.


Sex ed requirements are often disregarded and instead replaced with heteronormative propaganda that criminalizes anything that threatens the nuclear family.[edit]

    • McNeill 13** ~~[Tanya McNeill received her PhD in Sociology with a Certificate in Feminist Studies from the University of California at Santa Cruz in 2008. She has taught in Women's and Gender Studies, LGBT Studies and Sociology at the University of Wisconsin Eau Claire, Wellesley College, the University of California at Davis, and the University of California at Santa Cruz. Her research interests include the production of knowledge about the family, the regulation of gender, race, sexuality, and class, childhood and gender, and LGBT advocacy. Her essay, 'A nation of families: The codification and (be)longings of heteropatriarchy' was published in Toward a Sociology of the Trace in 2010. She currently lives in Eugene, Oregon, where she is researching cultural and political representations of gender creative (or gender non-conforming) children. file:///C:/Users/Benny/Downloads/sex%20education%20and%20the%20promotion%20of%20heteronormativity.pdf "Sex education and the promotion of heteronormativity" pg. 7-8~~] Calculus BC

Only 12 states and Washington DC require that schools include what SIECUS and the Guttmacher AND and citizenship by positing that these students 'will likely become parents.'


1NC vs Starter Pack 3[edit]

Framework[edit]

Interpretation: the affirmative should defend the desirability of a topical plan that affirms the United States federal government should substantially increase its funding and/or regulation of elementary and/or secondary education in the United States.[edit]

A. "United States Federal Government should" means the debate is solely about the outcome of a policy established by governmental means[edit]

    • Ericson, 3** (Jon M., Dean Emeritus of the College of Liberal Arts – California Polytechnic U., et al., The Debater's Guide, Third Edition, p. 4)

The Proposition of Policy: Urging Future Action In policy propositions, each topic contains AND compelling reasons for an audience to perform the future action that you propose.


B. The word "Resolved" before the colon reflects a legislative forum[edit]

The colon introduces the following: a. A list, but only after " AND resolved:" Resolved: (colon) That this council petition the mayor.


Violation: The affirmative does not present a topical plan text.[edit]

Vote Negative -[edit]

1. Institutional knowledge – our framework prioritizes a method of democratic engagement and commitment to participatory change - the affirmative's criteria for political change causes a fracturing of politics and trades off with genuine political change.[edit]

However, politics is no less important to many of us today. Politics still AND peers and colleagues at the level of political or intellectual debate and organisation.


    • ====2. Deliberative dialogue - the resolution provides fair, limited balance of ground to both the aff and the neg – discarding the opportunity of focus provided by the resolution turns debate into a monologue which guts all benefits of the activity. ====**
    • Hanghoj 08** – PhD, assistant professor, School of Education, University of Aarhus, also affiliated with the Danish Research Centre on Education and Advanced Media Materials, located at the Institute of Literature, Media and Cultural Studies at the University of Southern Denmark ~~[Thorkild, PLAYFUL KNOWLEDGE An Explorative Study of Educational Gaming, PhD Dissertation Institute of Literature, Media and Cultural Studies University of Southern Denmark 2008, http://static.sdu.dk/mediafiles/Files/Information_til/Studerende_ved_SDU/Din_uddannelse/phd_hum/afhandlinger/2009/ThorkilHanghoej.pdf~~]

3.3.1. Balancing teaching and gaming Debate games are often AND dialogue as an end in itself" (Wegerif, 2006: 61).


These impacts outweigh - effective deliberative training coupled with institutional knowledge is key to effective challenges to oppression—the content of debates is irrelevant, it's about repeatedly practicing the form of switch-side skepticism[edit]

My analysis of the Solutions controversy has revealed one such opportunity: the potential for AND create political space within which alternative conceptions of politics can be developed.30


Cap[edit]

Their rejection of education as a space of productivity is actively hostile to an anti-capitalist orientation – ethics demand that we utilize spaces such as debate to generate an anti-capitalist pedagogy that can play a fundamental role in shaping the material relations of power. Instead of resigning ourselves to an experience of impotentiality, the negative can create counter-hegemonic enclaves to challenge neoliberal knowledge production – this provides a new vocabulary to discuss social and political problems, develop the requisite skills to deploy them and reverse the neoliberal orthodoxy. As an educator, this is your responsibility[edit]

In opposition to these positions, I want to reclaim a tradition in radical educational AND through new forms of pedagogical praxis, global protests, and collective resistance.


Our pedagogy has the ability to connect critical theory to practice- the academy has become the fodder of neoliberalism- we need to move past revelations and theorizing and it is your responsibility as an academic to provide a new vocabulary for engaging the social order[edit]

Increasingly, education appears useful only to those who hold political and economic power, AND trust, conviction, and courage that are vital to a substantive democracy.


The academy is a place where we can turn the governed into governors- these educational spaces have the ability to challenge the hegemonic knowledge production that sustains the status quo and bring about new forms of resistance[edit]

As neoliberal economics is accorded more respect than democratic politics, the citizen has been AND and power constitutes a new site of politics, pedagogy, and resistance.


Neither team's method fixes the structural harm, but an accurate diagnosis of the problem is necessary to condense effective strategies of resistance[edit]

    • McLaren '1 **(Peter, Critical Studies @ Chapman U, urban schooling prof @ UCLA, "Rage and Hope: The Revolutionary Pedagogy of Peter McLaren – an Interview with Peter McLaren," Currículo sem Fronteiras, v.1, n. 2, p. xlix-lix)

McLaren: Mitja, I like the way that you framed that question. The AND is social science – and politics – the way it should be practiced.


Its try or die—Capitalism's narcissistic drive makes democratization of the market impossible—humanity is at a crossroads—the timeframe is now[edit]

Richard A. **Smith 7**, Research Associate at the Institute for Policy Research & Development, UK; PhD in History from UCLA, June 2007, "The Eco-suicidal Economics of Adam Smith," Capitalism Nature Socialism, Vol. 18, No. 2, p. 22-43 So there you have it: insatiable growth and consumption is destroying the planet and AND a practical working socialist democracy, or we face ecological and social collapse.


Voting negative refuses the affirmative in favor of Historical Materialist Pedagogy. International inequality is sutured by the unequal circulation of capital. Without revolutionary theory, there can be no revolutionary moment. Only starting from the structural antagonisms produced by wage labor can lead to transformative politics.[edit]

    • Ebert '9** ~~[Teresa, Associate Professor of English, State University of New York at Albany, THE TASK OF CULTURAL CRITIQUE, pp. 92-95~~]

Unlike these rewritings, which reaffirm in a somewhat new language the system of wage AND Instead, the pedagogy of critique is a worldly teaching of the worldly.


Advantage[edit]

People can and do assert agency in the face of state control – ignoring this disempowers the aff[edit]

    • Casarino and Negri 04** -Cesare Casarino, professor of cultural studies and comparative literature at the University of Minnesota AND Antonio Negri, author of numerous volumes of philosophy and political theory. "It's a Powerful Life: A Conversation on Contemporary Philosophy" Cultural Critique 57.

AN: I believe Giorgio is writing a sequel to Homo Sacer, and I AND continuously try to subtract or neutralize our resistance. ~~[End Page 174~~]


Their theory is hostile to agency and ignores distinctions within sovereignty.[edit]

Andrew Robinson, January 21, 2011 "Giorgio Agamben: destroying sovereignty," http://ceasefiremagazine.co.uk/in-theory-giorgio-agamben-destroying-sovereignty/)//a-berg Agamben's approach to politics is thoroughgoing in its cleaning-out of statist ways of AND of exclusion into autonomy, through the rejection and immanent overcoming of sovereignty.


This makes their advocacy depoliticizing and ignorant of social reforms[edit]

Huysmans 8 (Jef – Professor of Security Studies at the Open University, "The Jargon of Exception—On Schmitt, Agamben and the Absence of Political Society," in International Political Sociology, Volume 2, Issue 2, June 2008, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1749-5687.2008.00042.x/abstract) Deploying the jargon of exception and especially Agamben's conception of the exception-being- AND as the central processes through which individualized bodily resistances gain their sociopolitical significance.


Method[edit]

The aff may be a pre-requisite but it is not a complete politics – their method of study cannot defend or sustain itself which guarantees backlash and re-appropriation.[edit]

    • Ford 17** – (Derek R., Prof of Education at DePauw University, PhD Syracuse, "Studying like a communist: Affect, the Party, and the educational limits to capitalism," Incorporating ACCESS, Volume 49, 2017 - Issue 5, Pages 452-461)//a-berg

Studying is, like the crowd event, a beautiful moment of encounter, the AND foreclosed as the crowd is dispersed through redirection, exhaustion, or repression.


Agamben's ontological rendering of political events is reductive – their analytical tunnel vision prevents nuanced understandings of power which can actualize resistance.[edit]

Andrew Robinson, January 21, 2011 "Giorgio Agamben: destroying sovereignty," http://ceasefiremagazine.co.uk/in-theory-giorgio-agamben-destroying-sovereignty/)//a-berg My main concern with Agamben's theory arises from some degree of scepticism regarding the assumption AND the state-as-arbiter and the state-as-distributor)?